October 12

Lesson 16 ANSWERS
Lessons 17-20
Africa Lesson Seventeen – Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone
Africa Lesson Eighteen – Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire
Africa Lesson Nineteen – Ghana, Togo
Africa Lesson Twenty – Benin, Nigeria

Brit (Barnaby Lenon (born 10 May 1954) is a British schoolmaster who is the former Head Master of Harrow School in Harrow in north-west London ) explains African map


Simple Labeled


African Rivers and Lakes



Africa is the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia.

The world is intrigued by Earth’s largest desert, the Sahara, in the north; the great savanna grasslands; and tropical rain forests of central Africa with its wild, roaming animals, Africa also has the beautiful modern cities of Cape Town and Johannesburg in the south. Africa is a world of muiliformity – on one hand, one finds poverty, civil wars, political instability, and spread of AIDS, drought, and illiteracy. On the other hand, it is a land of great potential wealth, with modern cities and unbelievable scenic beauty, with its magnificent waterfalls, snow-capped mountains, clear blue lakes, and wide rivers. The main rivers are Nile, Congo, and Niger. Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain peak in Africa. The main groups of people are the Arab and Berber peoples living north of the Sahara, and the black Africans (more than one thousand ethnic groups) who live south of the desert

The continent is also known as the Cradle of Humankind

At about 30,221,532 km² (11,668,545 mi²) including adjacent islands, it covers 6.0% of the Earth’s total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area.

The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

54 fully recognized countries and Western Sahara, whose statehood is disputed by Morocco. South Sudan is the continent’s newest country.

1. Deserts in Africa:

1. Sahara desert:

The Sahara Desert is the hottest, not to mention the largest desert in the world. It is located between the Atlas Mountain Range and  the Ethiopian plateau

2. Kalahari desert

3. Namib desert

2. Valley in Africa:

Long rift valley:

This valley is located in the Eastern part of Africa. It extends for 6400 km, from the Ethiopian Plateau to LAke Malawi, ending at Beira on the Mozambican coast.

3. Lakes in Africa:

1. Lake Tanganyika

2. Lake Malawi (formed in Rift valley)

3. Lake Rudolf (On the Ethiopian plateau)

4. Rivers in Africa:

1. The River Nile:

The longest river in the world-6690 km-rises in the Victoria lake and ends in the Mediterranean sea. It is known as White Nile, and Blue Nile in the tributaries means stream of the river. Both white and blue Nile meets near Khartoum in Northern Sudan-Khartoum is the capital of Sudan.

2. The river Zaire :

River Congo-the central part of the African continent, The Stanley Falls is a tourist attraction.

3. The river Zambezi

The Victoria falls is a tourist attraction, and Kariba dam is built on it.

4. The river Limpopo :

South of Zambezi, ends into Indian ocean- Limpopo means “Crocodile” in the local language hence there are larger numbers of crocodiles.

5. The river Niger:

located in the western part of Africa.

6. The river Orange:

rises in the Drakensberg Mountains.

5. Mountains in Africa:

1. Atlas Mountains

N-w side of Africa continent, Toubakal peak raises to 4165km

2. Ahaggar and Tibesti mountains

Volcanic mountains and they are within Sahara desert)

3. Kilimanjaro and Kenya mountains

Volcanic mountains and located towards the east of Rift valley-Kilimanjaro is the highest peak and rises to 5895 m above the sea level-covered with ice

4. Great Karoo and Drakensberg mountains:

located in the south of Africa.

6. Islands in Africa:
. Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles (from the Indian ocean),

2. Sao Tom, Malabo islands(from the Atlantic ocean)

7. Oceans and seas surrounding Africa:

1. The Indian ocean-in the east

2. The Atlantic ocean- in the west

3. Mediterranean Sea: in the north

and separates Africa from the Europe. Sinai Peninsula: joins Africa and Asia.

4. The Southern ocean-lies to the south of Africa

southern ocean is made by the merging of the 3 main oceans-Pacific, Atlantic and the Indian oceans. Canaries and Benguela currents -ocean currents-keeps the Sahara Desert little mild

8. Different Types of Forests of Africa:

Equatorial evergreen, Temperate evergreen, Mixed and dry Savanna grasslands, Marshes, Semi-arid and arid, Nile river and Oases forest.

9. Natural/Mineral resources in Africa

1. Gold mines: Located at Witwatersrand

2. Diamond mines: Located at Kimberley

3. Copper: From Congo

4. Manganese: from Ghana

5. Cobalt: From  Zambia

10. Animals in Africa:

Different types of monkeys- gorillas, chimpanzees, elephants, zebras, rhinos, cheetahs, crocodiles, fox, wolves, snakes and deer. In birds, there are flamingos, ostriches in the Savanna grassland, others are kites, eagels, parrots

11. Africa is referred as :

1. Dark Continent

2. Last Explored Continent

3. Hottest Continent

4. Plateau Continent

12. Number of Countries in the Africa: 54

Smallest country: The Seychelles

Largest country: was Sudan

13. Civilizations:

Egyptian civilization -One of the ancient civilizations in the world history had flourished in Africa.

14. Plateaus:

South African Plateau-it height is between 1500 and 2000 m.

15. Trees and Plants in Africa:

Baobab trees, Mangrove, creepers, tall trees like mahogany, Rosewood, Ironwood, Oil Palm, elephant grass and other different type of grasses. In Sahara desert there are thorny bushes, papayas, palm and date while in the Temperate evergreen forest, there are pine, Oak, spruce trees are widely seen.

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